The international scene
Child support systems across the world
Objectives of child support across nations & centuries
Links to international sources about child support
Links to special interest groups worldwide
Declarations, treaties, conventions, etc
Clues about child maintenance in some Muslim cultures
PICSLT - Project for the Improvement of Child Support Litigation Technology
International conspiracy theories
History of child support across the world
Reciprocal arrangements with other countries
The cost of children in other nations
Can Child Support Agencies ever work?
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Links to international sources about child support

National systems, on-line sources, other references, SupportGuidelines articles

National systems

Country Some links
Australia The Australia Child Support Agency is operated by the Australian Taxation Office
Canada Canada Child Support is operated by the Department of Justice Canada

Here is an on-line child support calculator for Japan.
Here is a glimpse of child support.

Jersey There is information from Jersey Citizens Advice Bureau, Jersey, Channel Islands, about the system in Jersey. (It is a little out of date, if only because it doesn't cover the latest CSA jurisdiction rules).
New Zealand New Zealand Child Support is operated by their Inland Revenue

Family Court of Singapore.
Maintenance (Financial Support).


The USA has a Federal Office of Child Support Enforcement, but individual systems are operated by each state (and sometimes counties).

The FBI is involved in Child Support enforcement! See their support for the Child Support Recovery Act. claims to be "The Comprehensive Resource for the Interpretation and Application of Child Support Guidelines in the United States". In fact, it provides many lessons for the UK too, which is why it has a section of its own here. They provide a good overview for the USA at Child Support Guidelines on the Web. This links to various Child Support Calculators on the Web (for the USA, plus Japan!)

This site also provides monthly articles, which although they are USA-focused, are often thought-provoking. Below are summaries of a few of these informative articles - they are nearly all worth reading, but some (these) are more relevant to the UK than others. now has child support calculators for every state.
Divorce Headquarters has calculators for every state.
Some calculators are found at DivorceLawInfo.
The Wisconsin Child Support section of the The Beaulier Law Offices has a link to this web site.

The project below has a commentary on this web site:
PICSLT - Project for the Improvement of Child Support Litigation Technology

On-line sources

On-line source Comments
Canadian Department of Justice The Canadian Department of Justice examined non-Canadian child support systems in 1997. The result is online at:
An Overview of the Commonwealth Countries’ Procedures for Establishing and Modifying Child Support
An Overview of the United States’ Procedures for Establishing and Modifying Child Support
Clearinghouse on International Developments in Child, Youth and Family Policies at COLUMBIA UNIVERTY The Clearinghouse on International Developments in Child, Youth and Family Policies at COLUMBIA UNIVERTY has a section on Child Support (Advanced Maintenance) for a number of countries.
Hong Kong legislature The Hong Kong legislature commisioned reports in 1998-99 on CSAs in other countries (UK, USA, New Zealand, Australia).

Other references

Reference Comments
Making child maintenance regimes work
Anne Corden
Joseph Rowntree Foundation & Family Policies Studies Centre, 1999
ISBN 1-901455-35-1

This compares systems in: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, France, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, UK.

Trial and error: a review of UK child support policy
Helen Barnes, Patricia Day, Natalie Cronin
Family Policies Study Centre, 1998
ISBN 1-9011455-08-4

This has "Country profiles" for: Australia, Austria, France, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, USA.

SupportGuidelines articles

The extracts below are typically perhaps 1% of less of each article.

Title Extract
March/April 1999:
It’s Ten O’Clock: Do You Know Where Your Sperm Are? Toward A Strict Liability Theory of Parentage

"The story of [PW] and [KS] is just another in a long line of cases where the father of a child has claimed he is not liable for child support and/or that he is entitled to tort damages because of the mother's misrepresentations as to birth control and or/fertility. A woman's fraudulent misrepresentation regarding the use of birth control or the ability to become pregnant, however, has never shielded the father from child support liability."

June 1999:
Child Support Guidelines and the Shared Custody Dilemma

"That some kind of adjustment should be made is based on the recognition that in cases of shared custody, each parent is directly paying part of the child's both fixed and non-fixed expenses. This does not mean, however, that for every dollar that the noncustodial parent pays in expenses, the custodial parent's expenses decrease, resulting in a zero sum gain. Rather, the total of expenditures by both parents increase; the noncustodial parent's expenses increase, and the custodial parent's expenses do not decrease by the same amount. This result is predicated on the fact that each parent pays "redundant costs." Redundant costs are fixed expenses that both parents must pay, for example, a bedroom for the child, basic furniture and toys, housing expenses, utilities, etc."
August 1999:
The Duty of Stepparents to Support Their Stepchildren
"With the growing number of stepchildren living in married couple families, however, comes the growing number of statutes and cases concerning the rights and responsibilities of stepparents to their stepchildren. Quite importantly, the law is now beginning to recognize that severing the psychological-parent/child relationship can be just as damaging as severing the biological parent/child relationship."
October 1999:
The Child Support Obligations of Grandparents
"A recent California case reiterated what is the law in all states, and is, indeed, the public policy of the federal government as evidence by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-193, 110 Stat. 2105: "A child's right to support is owed by a child's parents, not the state." City and County of San Francisco v. Garnett, 70 Cal. App. 4th 845, 82 Cal. Rptr. 2d 924, 928 (1999). This statement can be taken one step farther: "A child's right to support is owed by anyone the government can somehow make pay, not the state.""
April 2000:
The Custodial Parent’s Duty to Account to the Noncustodial Parent for How Child Support Money is Spent
"This article will argue that these type of accounting statutes are unwise public policy, because they give the noncustodial parent inordinate control over every day expenditures for child support to the detriment of the custodial parent's decision-making authority. Further, and perhaps more importantly, there is no evidence that such accounting statutes actually cause greater compliance with child support orders. Rather, it may be argued that the ability to call for an accounting results in lower rates of compliance, because the award is more easily challenged."
December 2000:
The Link Between Visitation and Support Compliance
"Although this study concluded that any increase in the rate of visitation, over a period of time, does not result in any increase in child support, it still found an association between child support and visitation. Do fathers who visit more often tend to pay more child support, or do fathers who pay child support tend to visit more? Subsequent studies have still not answered this conclusively."
April 2001:
"The new Uniform Parentage Act (2000) truly is an act for the new millennium. By directly addressing the new reproductive technologies and the problems caused by late discovery of paternity or of non-paternity, the new Act comes a long way from the hide in the sand attitude of the previous act. Since time will undoubtedly bring us modes of parenting we cannot even now imagine, such as cloning, the new UPA may prove obsolete sooner than we imagine. Nonetheless, for now, it is useful and should be adopted by all states."
September 2001:
Child Support Guidelines and High Income Parents
"In reaching the conclusion that the reasonable needs of the child must govern the child support determination in high income cases, the court have stated that child support in excess of a child’s reasonable needs cannot stand for three reasons: (1) such support constitutes the distribution of the obligor parent’s estate; (2) such support provides an inappropriate windfall to the child; (3) such support may also infringe upon a parent’s right to direct the lifestyle of his or her children."
Page last updated: 16 March, 2006 © Copyright Barry Pearson 2003